- Burma Proper
- This term has several meanings. Historically, it refers to those parts of British Burma that were directly ruled by colonial officials and administratively divided into divisions and districts. They roughly coincided with Lower and Upper Burma, if the ethnic minority regions of the latter, annexed and pacified during and after 1885-1890, are excluded. After the Government of Burma Act (1935) was implemented, it was included within "Ministerial Burma," while the "Excluded Areas," comprising parts of the Frontier Areas, were administered separately by the London-appointed governor. Burma Proper also corresponds to the divisions of independent Burma after 1948, as opposed to the states. Ethnographically and geographically, the term refers to the central plain and delta of the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwady) River, where the Burmans and smaller numbers of Mons, Karens (Kayins), and other minorities live; in other words, lowland areas of the country where the people adopted Indo-Buddhist civilization and established sophisticated polities in precolonial times.
Historical Dictionary of Burma (Myanmar). Donald M. Seekins . 2014.
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